Lecturer of School of Laws, LL.M. Public law Chulalongkorn University, LL.B. Prince of Songkhla University
Language right in justice system
Language right should be recognized as a fundamental human right. It is strongly related to the history and culture of people. By the reason, this right must be promoted, especially in justice system not only to support this right as a fundamental human right, but also to help in connecting cracks caused by discrimination because of differences in language and ethnicity. This article use document review method to analyze the main question of the article “Should the justice system in Thailand recognized and promote language right in the system?”. By this method, We will focus on the condition of people to exercise his or her right and study experience of Canada about how to exercise and promote this right in the country. In the last, we founded that some part of Thailand (Southern part) can exercise this right, due to specific historical context in the area.
Keyword : Language right, Human right, Justice System
I am a postgraduate student from International Islamic University Malaysia, who also graduated from the same organization scoring the Best Student award from the Department of Political Science. I am a female from Bangladesh, well spoken in English, who is very passionate about her studies and sharing the knowledge with others.
The ills of ethnic nationalism in the light of Said Nursi: A study of nationalism and the question of Islam in Bangladeshi identity
Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, a strong proponent of Muslim unity, was always against what he called negative nationalism in Muslim societies. While he believed that nationalism could play a positive role in arousing compassion of Muslims in their fellow brethren, he also warned of its potential ills and adverse consequences as a tool for domination and harm of fellow human beings. Ethnic nationalism is primarily seen in highly homogenous societies throughout the world today, a good example of which is Bangladesh. Bangladeshi nationalism, as developed by its proponents in Bangladesh, has however, failed to be inclusive, and instead works within a framework which tends towards exclusion. In this regard, this paper, through a discursive discussion of historical narratives and aspects of identity formation, argues that recent manifestations of the ills of Bangladeshi nationalism, such as the narrative of Islamic terrorism and events surrounding the recent war crimes trials, stems from deeper issues related to failure of resolving the place of religious identity, mainly Islamic identity, within the Bangladeshi identity. This has led to aspects of negative nationalism, such as deeply polarized society, and aided in maintaining the divisive dichotomy of the secular and religious within the nation state in Bangladesh.
Keywords: Bediuzzaman Nursi, Islam, Ethnic Nationalism, Bangladesh, Bangali Identity
My name is Sukri Tamma. I was Born in Enrekang 18-08-1975. Currently, as like as the others author of this paper, I am a lecture in Department of Politics, Hasanuddin Unversity, Makassar. My PhD degree was under Philosophy Faculty, Bonn University Germany. Today I and my others colleagues in department have focused in study of Political Identity research where one of our result is this paper.
Adat as Local Ideology In the Indonesian Democracy Process (a study of the Toraja Ethnic Group in Local Election 2015)
This paper aim to show phenomenon of custom or adat “adat” as influential factor in the local election process in Indonesia. The phenomenon seems to indicate presence of a local ideology that fundamentally influences tendency of the people political behavior within local election. Based on the case of local election was in Toraja region, South Sulawesi province in 2015, this paper shows how custom as locally and exclusively social identity for the Toraja ethnic group was become fundamental standard of political behavior of the ethnic group in this region. Presence of adat as a local ideology seem was domintaed modern political institutions such as political parties and the local election during the process. Ultimately, the picture from the Toraja local election has indicates possibility of locally ideology presence where could be as crucial and influencing factor in local politics dynamics in Indonesia. it means, ideology as political behaviour standard is not only present in the general form as known as today. Certain communities also possible have local ideology based on their local wisdom where even able to be main factor on political process that regulate thru formal law and usually believed runs under the kind of general ideologies such as liberalism, Socialism, nationalism and others.
Keywords: Ideology, Custom, Locala election, Toraja
Moses Glorino Rumambo Pandin
Moses Glorino Rumambo Pandin is a PhD's candidate in Faculty of Philosophy Universitas Gadjah Mada. Moses works as a lecturer in English department, Faculty of Humanities, Universitas Airlangga. He completed his degrees in Indonesian Philosophy (BA), Industrial & Organizational Psychology (M.Sc.), Educational Psychologist (M.Psyc) and Master of Philosophy (M.Phil). His main focus of research on Social Humanities research on identity, character and art therapy. Besides as a student and lecturer, Moses works as a Quality Assurance's auditor and a consultant of mapping competence of Civil Servant (ASN) in several local governments in Indonesia. Until now, he is a member of several associations: Indonesian Literary Association, Indonesian Psychology Association, and Indonesian Forensic Psychology Association.
Reflecting Urban Identity’s Values through Traditional Humor Ludruk Performing Arts
The study aims to find the reflection of urban identity values through traditional humor ludruk performing art, especially the nature and structure. This research is based on Parker Dewitt thinking. According to Parker, the lyrics, practical statements and traditional humor ludruk were analyzed to find value structures that characterize unity of subjects, personal and universal, unity of mind, feeling and pleasure through performing art. The study applied mainly library research method and field study by relying on surveys and observations. The value of the ludruk humor not only finds values derived from life but also shares that values into the experience of life in which reflecting a function consists of two ways: outward and inward directions. The structure of the humor ludruk value’s experiences are the communication medium of ludruk players and the audience through the performing arts. The experience value of humor ludruk be significant in the framework of identity character development of the nation of Indonesiaby purifying, culture’s filters, building and improving society condition. The development of the character of the nation is a core process through taste and critical thinking. The findings of humor value experience of ludruk not only describe the identity of urban society but also got a significant place in the process by a sense based on freedom and spontaneity of action. The findings of the principle of unity and balance can be a refinement of objective scientific attitudes by working on emotional smoothing that can equip young generation’s understanding based on harmonious balance.
Keywords: Identity, value, urban, Humor ludruk,
Daya Negri Wijaya
I am a lecturer in history at Universitas Negeri Malang. Currently, I am pursuing my PhD in History at Universidade do Porto, Portugal. My research interest is on colonial history.
Malaccan Identity in the Account of Eredia’s Declaracam de Malaca
Portuguese malacca is one of Portuguese colonies in the early modern period. At that time, Malacca was a huge maritime empire before the 1511 Portuguese invasion. Intriguingly, the Portuguese Malacca seemed to preserve the Malaccan administration and remained the centre of cultural meeting and commerce in Southeast Asia. The Malaccan seemed to be cosmopolitan inhabitant. Some Portuguese authors (Pires’ Suma Oriental, 1515; The Book of Duarte Barbosa, 1518; Pinto’s Peregrinação, 1614; De Meneses’ Malaca Conquistada, 1634; Albuquerque’s Commentaries of Afonso de Albuquerque, 1774) and the unknown local writers (Malay Annals and Epic of Hang Tuah) have narrated the Malaccan but no one could reflect the Malaccan identity as clearly as Manuel Godinho de Eredia did (Maxwell, 1911). The spirit of being a cosmopolitan Malaccan is depicted by his life and work. He was born in Malacca in 1563; on his father’s side of Aragonese descent and on his mother’s side of a Macassarese. As a surveyor, he wrote a description on Malacca entitled “Declaracam de Malaca e da India Meridional com Cathay” (1613). Following the recent studies on the Malaccan identity portrayed in literary works (Sarkissian, 2005; Haskell, 2008; and Yusof, Hashim, & Muhammad, 2011), this study sticks on the Malaccan identity as reflected in Eredia’s travel literature and uses the intertextuality of history and literature to analyze the Malaccan identity. For Eredia, Portuguese Malaca remained a home of large population for inter-racial merchants. The inhabitants of Malacca were divided into several groups in three districts of Upe, Yler, and Sabba. They were depended on the commercial affairs and the trading life seemed to shape the cultural and religious life.
Keywords: native merchants, the culture of Malacca, the religion of Malacca
Fitaha Aini is PhD Candidate of Media and Communication Department, the University of Leicester in The UK. She has more than ten years of total employment experience of teaching, conducting research and publishing in local & abroad. In February 2018, she was awarded the Best Speaker in Toastmaster Toa Payoh, Singapore.
Critical Review of Alternative Media and Identity: A Case Study of Nusantara
Noting Indonesia as the third biggest democracy state in the world and ranked third among 40 countries which its citizen holds the strong view that religion is essential in their life, it would be valuable to investigate the nuances of alternative media and religious identity in this state. Religious identity has been manipulated to articulate the calling wills to mobilisation. Amartya Sen prediction of the nationhood and global identity that claims the all or nothing contest had been realised in the contradicted rallies which were framed and portrayed as either ‘flag’ or ‘faith’ themes based Indonesian religious blasphemy (Ahok) case in 2016. However, the extremist in South Thailand and Southern Philippines is the perfect examples of the religious nationalism, the blending of religious and nationhood identities, that have existed and increased recently. Furthermore, freedom of speech and press has moulded the Indonesian media landscape which unintentionally produces media as the hate catalysator in the multi-religious community, either providing a platform to the hate speech or hate spin. This critical review is expected to generate the conceptual model of identity transformation. By employing qualitative modes of enquiry, this study attempts to answer the leading question of why alternative media can be assumed as one of strong contributing factors in strengthening collective identity and forming narratives for collective action.
Keywords: Alternative Media, Identity, Religion, Nation, Nusantara
Iwan was born in Jakarta, 1963, got his Doctoral degree in History from University of Indonesia (2009). Now he is a lecturer and researcher in the department Faculty of Visual Art and Design, Jakarta Institute of Arts. Specialising in Comics, Illustrations and Visual Narratives Researches, he also an graphic designer and illustrator.
Anti Democratic Regime Criticism In Caricature
This paper aims to examine caricatures that criticize the negative impact of forced democratic conceptions, especially by the United States of America to various countries. The critics are generally made by contemporary art workers who concerned about socio-political issues in the context of democracy in various parts of the world. Caricature is one medium that effectively expressed the critics. Through such a meaningful and interpretative caricature form, caricature workers criticize the establishment of the democratic regime. This paper is done by looking at the many works of caricature throughout the year 2000-2016 in various social media that displays social criticism of the policies of a democratic regime in various countries. The various social problems over the negative impacts of democracy have been the source of their work. In this regard, this paper questions what problems or issues are presented by them and how the anti-democratic caricature messages are presented. The paper also questioned why socio-political criticism is emerging in a country that practices the principles of democracy. This paper will also look at the causal link between the emergence of social criticism and the socio-political situation. Data analysis was collected from various social media during the year 2000-2016. The paper also attempts to document the various caricature objects in question. To study the intended caricature forms and meanings, this paper uses a discourse analysis approach. The results of this study can be used as a reference to see the mentality of a community and how they reacted to the implementation of democracy in their countries.
Keywords: Criticism, Anti Democracy, Caricature
Dr. Adrianus L.G. Waworuntu
Adrianus L.G. Waworuntu Lecturer at Chinese Studies Program, Faculty of Humanities, Universitas Indonesia. He obtained his bachelor degree from Chinese Studies Program, Universitas Indonesia (1985). He was a Fulbright scholar, studied for an M.A. degree at Regional Studies, East Asia: China, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University (1990-1992). In 1994, he studied at Murdoch University, Australia and attained an M.Phil degree from Asian Studies Program. His doctoral degree is from the Department of History, Faculty of Humanities, Universitas Indonesia in 2011 with dissertation entitled: “Huang Zunxian (1848-1905): A Reminiscence of a Chinese gentry reformer of late imperial China.”
Democracy, Regional Autonomy, and Rivalry: The Shifting of Mosalaki Role In Ende Lio District (Flores)
This article discusses the practice of local wisdom in the institution of customary society in various provinces in Indonesia. The customary society has become more marginalized due to the influence of reformation, in which some democracy values and principles spread, specifically the Act of Regional Autonomy. This act has evicted and changed the system of society including various local wisdoms found in many societies in Indonesia. On one hand, democracy and regional autonomy has positive impacts, such as openness, accountability, and transparency in government bureaucracy. On the other hand, it brings negative impacts, one of which is the shift of customary chief role from his rivalries. This research aims to analyse the factors affecting the shift of chief authority in the institution of customary society based on local wisdom in one villages in Ende Distric (Flores). This research uses qualitative-descriptive approach by analysing various factors affecting the decrease of Mosalaki (Ketua Adat) role as customary chief in one villages in Ende Regency. By using political anthropology approach to understand the ritual and daily life in the village adat institution, this article found ten factors affecting shifting role of Mosalaki as democracy values and principles spread after reformation, ranging from structural, personal, natural, and political.
Keywords: Democracy, Regional Autonomy, Mosalaki, Cultural Village, Ende Lio-Flores.
I am Sihabudeen P, pursuing Ph.D. at the Department of Political Science, the University of Hyderabad, on the topic of Religion, Community and Political Identities: A Study of Indian Union Muslim League with Prof. Arun Kumar Patnaik. I have completed Master of Philosophy on the topic of “Conceptualizing Muslim Identity in Kerala: A Study of Post- Independence Scenario” at the Centre for Regional Studies, University of Hyderabad. As a dedicated research scholar, my major interest is to explore in the areas of religion and politics and challenge the existing western mode of analyzing Islam, particularly in the post 9/11 incident, which results in a kind of generalization/misinterpretation of Islam and Muslim societies in the global level
Religion and Politics of Identity: A Case of Indian Union Muslim League
The political identity of Muslims in India has been a contested topic within the history of colonial and post- colonial India. The patent role played by religion in the creation of two independent states, India and Pakistan, defined within the binaries of ‘secular’ and ‘religious’ nationalism, has problematized the very existence of Muslims within India. Their religious and political identity and loyalty towards the Indian nation is always questioned by the dominant groups, which delegitimized the political articulations of the community. The study seeks to trace the political strategies of Indian Union Muslim League, to create a ‘political space’ for the Muslim community in the state of Kerala. The study enquires how Muslim League is using religion as a medium for political mobilization in the context of the state, where the Indian National Congress has a significant presence through nationalist struggle and the Left has a formidable base achieved through its class struggle. It further seeks the party’s religious (concept of Ummah) and political (material benefits) strategy to unite the ideologically divided “traditional” Sunnis and “modern” Mujahids to expand their political constituencies. It will also critically evaluate how the party negotiates with mainstream electoral politics and its stakeholders, like other political parties, to hold the political power to formulate policies for the benefit of the community and larger public to create a democratic space for the community. Thus the study finally highlights Muslim League’s success in claiming the ‘political ownership’ of the community, through offering a ‘Muslim Political space’ in the state of Kerala. The study is both quantitative and qualitative in nature with the help of focus group interviews and purposive sampling with open and close ended questionnaire along with detailed interview of party workers and leaders.
Key words: Democratic Space, Political power, Muslim League, Religion and Politics
Izak Y. M. Lattu
Izak Y. M. Lattu, PhD., is a permanent lecturer of the Graduate Program in Sociology of Religion, Satya Wacana Christian University, and a visiting lecturer of The Center for Religious and Cross-cultural Studies, Gadjah Mada University. He earned his PhD in the Interdisciplinary Studies of Religion (Social Scientific Studies of Religion and Folklore Studies) from The Graduate Theological Union, affiliated the University of California, Berkeley, under Fulbright Scholarship. Izak was awarded a dissertation writing scholarship in 2013-2014 from Harvard University where he completed his PhD dissertation that centered on issue of the innovation for civic engagement in oral-oriented society.
Performing Indigenous Philosophy: Aprilan-Saparan Festivity as Civil Sphere for Interreligious Engagements in Merbabu Mountainsides, Central Java
This article explores the formulation of civil sphere for interreligious relationships that based on indigenous philosophy through intertwines of Javanese-Christian Aprilan-Saparan festivity on the Merbabu mountainsides, Central Java. Javanese- Christian community on the Merbabu mountainsides, Ngaduman village, has shifted the Javanese Saparan, the purification festival, to the Easter celebration (Aprilan) as the community converted from the religion of Java to Christianity in 1967. After 1965, many communities of Javanese religion underwent coercive conversions to state recognized religions because of political pressure (Hefner 1993: 113 – 115). Although the Saparan takes new form of festivity, the meaning of Javanese purification remains bold when the local value encounters Christian Easter idea. Because of its hybridity, Aprilan-Saparan creates a civil sphere, a socio-cultural orb that based on social solidarity and collective camaraderie (Alexander 2003; 2006), among Muslims, Christians, and Buddhists in the mountainsides. The hybrid festivity has strengthened a parallax real or “two points of perspectives, perceptible only in shift from the one to the other” (Zizek 2006: 26) because the Aprilan- Saparan curves interreligious rituals, performances, and nourishment. Using Michael D Jackson’s philosophical anthropological (2016) and Jeffrey Alexander’s civil sphere (2006), the paper investigates the April-Saparan festivity as indigenous philosophy for interreligious engagements. The paper concludes that Aprilan- Saparan has served as indigenous philosophy in local knowledge/folklore that bridges interreligious communities in the Merbabu mountainsides, Central Java.
Andi Ismira, S.Ip, M.A.
• Name : Andi Ismira
• Place/Date of Birth : Ujung Pandang (Souht Sulawesi Province), 09 March 1989
• Occupation : International Relation Lecturer West Sulawesi University, Majene, West Sulawesi Province.
• Writings :
- The Analysist Of Islamic Fundamentalist Movement in Middle East Region (2010)
- Neoliberalism Development and the socio-environmental conflict, in Merauke Food and Energy Estate Projects (MIFEE), 2014.
- Article, on 1st UNHAS Internasional Conference On Social Political Studies (UICOSP), Tittleing : “Global Indigeneous People Political Movement, in National Context of Indonesia, A Nationalism and Human Right Approach.”. Presented in Hasanuddin University, 25 October 2017.
Civil Society Organization Dynamics toward Participatory Development Practice: Study of Indonesia’s Indigeneous and Environmental Participatory Democracy Movement Strategies
This article aims to explain the philosophical value and strategic dynamics of Civil Society Organization (CSO) movement, to articulate their values of goals through some strategic movements. In general, the movement of CSO were being raised intended to respond the socio-political dynamics of vulnerable communities, coping up with discrimination, unparticipatory and social injustice, under modern developmentalism model. The situation stimulates the movement to fight for a more just and participatory development process, as the embodiment of democracy essential. Indigenous Peoples and Environmental organization were chosen as field object of this writing, since the inclination of an Environmental Justice and Political Identity Issues, continually strengthened. This paper observes and describes the pattern or strategy on Indigenous and environmental CSO in the context of pursuig of policy changes, towards a more inclusive and participatory development. To reach the goals, both of this CSO has their own signature methods which has lead both to become the most significance and influential social movement in Indonesia, post reform era to current. They do put their social intervention ot law/regulation transformation to the policies of Indonesia’s government. Class action, legal advocacy, Community capacity building, propelling community delegtion to involve electoral politic, are some of the strategic measures could be taken as reflection of participatory democracy atmosphere and restoring the people's autonomy. Tthese strategies, had engendering transformative regulation products, which contain some eegalitarian development principles, one of which could be mentioned is the principle of Free, Prior, and Informed Consent (FPIC) into political-environmental management. Using qualitative research methods, which proposes the descriptive analysis-data management, this paper observes and describes how indigenous and environmental organizations running these strategies. What challenges do they have to reckon with, in the dynamics ofsocial intervention conducting and creating a structural Participatory Development, also to what point indicates the successful achievement by implementing those strategies. Further, this article can present the refference for the evaluation of the civil society and Government collaboration to embodied a democratic society.
Suzanna Eddyono, PhD
My dissertation has focused on the issue of how nationalism is defined and reproduced after the collapse of Suharto’s New Order in 1998 and it has revealed the contesting official narratives in post-Suharto Indonesia during its transition and consolidation to democracy. Advancing this early study, my current research interests include (1) nationalism and social development and (2) cultural politics of development.
New Nationalism in post-New Order Indonesia
This study focuses on the emergence of new-nationalism in Indonesia after the collapse of Suharto’s authoritarian regime in 1998. The transition to democracy in the early of 2000s and the consolidation of democracy since 2009 have brought the unprecedented cultural and political changes. This paper argues that the processes of democratization, among other things, has challenged and shaped the preceding interpretation of the national principles dominantly defined by the state. Consequently, the question of who we are as a nation becomes more important than before in defining the past, the present, and the future of Indonesia as a nation. Focusing on three core concepts: Pancasila, democracy, and civil society, I draw my analysis from public discourses visible in policy documents, media, and the existing intellectual debates that involve both state and non-state actors. Based on narrative thematic analysis I shape my discussion to highlights diverse ways through which the nation is imagined. This paper demonstrates that post-New Order Indonesia has witnessed the emergence of its new nationalism. Unlike earlier studies that emphasize one or dominant ideology informing the emergence of the new-nationalism, this paper instead highlights the emerging of diverse ideologies vying for dominance.
Amado Anthony G. Mendoza III
Amado Anthony G. Mendoza III serves as Instructor of literature and creative writing at the University of the Philippines Diliman. He is currently finishing is Master’s in Philippine Literature in the same university. His research interests include Southeast Asian literary history and movements, Southeast Asian social movements, actor-network and assemblage theories, Latin American literature, literary anti-communism, digital humanities, and the Philippine novel. Some of his research and creative works are published in Daluyan: Journal ng Wikang Filipino, Philippine Humanities Review, Talas and Tomas.
Harian Rakyat and Ang Bayan: The Democratization and Internationalization of Culture in Indonesia and Philippines
The Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI) and the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) [not to be mistaken with PKP-1930] were once two of the strongest communist parties in Southeast Asia during the Cold War era. While the former was systematically and completely destroyed during the wake of Soeharto’s Orde Baru regime, the latter remains strong and alive in spite of concerted efforts from past regimes to put an end to its activities. And while it’s true that political activities, tactics and stratagems are crucial to a party’s development and success, one would be remiss to ignore the importance of the cultural field as well. Turning to the “culture section” of both Harian Rakyat (the official organ of Lembaga Kebudayaan Rakyat (Lekra), an autonomous cultural organization that has an indirect affiliation with PKI) and Ang Bayan (the official organ of CPP) which usually feature fiction, poetry, essays on culture, and translations of important philosophical and literary works, the study aims to contextualize and analyze the efforts of these publications “to bring culture to the masses” and “foment international solidarity” in light of the increasing institutionalization, bourgeoisification, and weaponization of the arts and culture during the height of the Cold War in the 60s, 70s, and 80s.
Keywords: Harian Rakyat, Ang Bayan, culture, cold war, PKI, CPP
Indriani Pratiwi and Dianty Widyowati Ningrum
Indri is a master’s student at the Department of Peace and Conflict Studies in the University of Sydney. Her research interests include peacebuilding, peace journalism, and conflict-sensitive development practices. She recently completed her internship at the National Centre of Indigenous Excellence in Sydney. She is currently involved as a facilitator in the Creators of Peace, an international women’s peacebuilding program by the Initiatives of Change.
Dianty Widyowati Ningrum
Dianty has a master’s degree in Global Urban Development and Planning from The University of Manchester and a bachelor degree in Social Development and Welfare from Universitas Gadjah Mada. She currently works as an analyst for Kopernik, an Indonesia-based institution focusing on experimentation of solutions and technology distribution to reduce poverty in the last mile. She previously interned at Governor office of DKI Jakarta.
Conflict-Supportive Narrative in Indonesia’s Democracy: Beyond Identity Politics?
The prevalence of polarizing narratives during elections has often been analyzed through the lens of identity politics. However, there are relatively few studies that have examined whether those narratives could exacerbate conflict and threaten democracy. This paper aims to critically discuss the emergence of conflict-supportive narratives that circulate within contemporary Indonesian democracy. This phenomenon should be anticipated in the coming years, especially when the growth of new media helps these narratives to reach a wider audience more effectively. As reflected during gubernatorial election of DKI Jakarta, the conflict-supportive narratives have trespassed the domain of identity politics and are growingly used to fuel violence. The paper asks: does democracy allow the presence of conflict- supporting narratives? The question will open more in-depth discussion about the current state of Indonesian democracy, and what form of democracy this nation would vision itself to be. Using conflict- supportive narrative framework and literature research methodology, the paper argues the following: First, conflict-supportive narratives grow within a democratic system, and second, democracy has also enabled grassroots participation to counter those narratives and reshape the outlook of their nation’s democratic system. Finally, the presence of the narratives has become a part of Indonesia’s democratic transformation. In moving forward, it is crucial for both the state and society to ask the ethic of this practice and the response they should provide in this transitioning phase.
Keyword: conflict-supportive narratives, democracy, ethics, Indonesia
Ryllian Chandra is a lecturer and researcher in Department of Islamic Politic at Raden Fatah State Islamic University Palembang, Indonesia. He received Bachelor on majoring History from Padjadjaran University (2008) and Masters of Arts from Department of Political Science, Gadjah Mada University (2013). His research interest in political science are in the areas of political economy and social transformation.
Islamic Politics of Palembang in The 1950s
This study aims to explain how the dynamics of local politics in Palembang which became the background of PRRI rebellion eruption in Sumatra. There are two important elements that became the root of political problems in Palembang in 1950'an, the first is the effort of integrating the national economy which affected to regional economy ; and second is the Islamic politics that is flavored by local identity. The study also explains how Islamic populism was present in the local political context of the 1950s, in which Muslim figures who also had influence in the economy became the driving force of political demands against Jakarta. The main political base of Islam in Palembang lies on the petty bourgeois whose heavily depends on economic interests, then when economic barriers emerge due to the centralized policy by Central Government sparked reaction of dissents. Economic solutions and reconciliation efforts through the establishment of a common identity were put forward to be important factors that could attract Palembang from the prolonged vortex of violent conflict. The significance of this research is to look at the common thread between the current political issues of Islam and the turmoil that has occurred in Indonesia before.
Keywords : Islamic Politics, Regional Rebellion, Islamic Populism
Dr. Fuad Gani, M.A.; Dr. Zeffry Alkatiri; Reynaldo de Archellie, M.Si
Fuad Gani is a lecturer at Library and Information Studies, Universitas Indonesia. He earned his bachelor degree from English Studies Program, Universitas Indonesia (1989); master degree from Library and Information Studies, Loughbrorough University (1991); and doctoral degree from History Departement, Universitas Indonesia. His research interest encompass democracy and freedom of press, knowledge management and information, and history of press.
Democracy and Local Traditions: The Emergence of Transactional Politics in Local Context 2010—2014
This paper examines the impact of implementation of the concept of democracy-styled government in the Reform Era in a district which has not yet known the true nature and culture of democracy itself. The ignorance of the true meaning of democracy has led to unnecessarily local euphoria syndrome in government institutions especially during local elections in various provinces in Indonesia. As a multi-cultural nation Indonesia has various forms of local wisdom. The most important one is the conception of customary law and local tradition which generally revealing the various values of philosophical teaching with one-sided perception. The phenomenon is seen from the presence of the elders and local community leaders who are assumed to play a central role in their community. This strategic role has prompted the emergence of the local political model. This study aims to examine the model and its best practices mixed with local wisdom on power struggles in government institutions reflected in local elections. This research focuses on the constellation of leadership models applied in government institutions in Pamekasan District, Madura. In this district, local elections takes place with a closed transactional model and can only be contested by local community leaders, the moslem prominent leaders. This research used a qualitative-descriptive approach by conducting discourse analysis on various traditions of political behavior and local leadership patterns found in their traditional texts. Analysis is conducted by positioning the traditional text on the context of the self-styled interpretation when the local elections were held in 2010—2014.
Keywords: democracy, local wisdom, local leadership, political transactional, local elections, Pamekasan.
Aholiab Watloly; Yustina Trihoni Nalesti Dewi; Andreas Pandiangan; Jonathan Kwik
A Professor from Pattimura University with expertise in Archaeology and Cultural Anthropology.
The Philosophy of The Saniri Negeri As a Basis for Conflict Resolution Through Inclusive Societal Participation
The Saniri Negeri are local adat institutions involved in Moluccan governance. The Saniri Negeri is founded upon, and functions on the basis of, a core democratic philosophy, which aims to maintain peace, harmony and prosperity in life. This philosophy is an inner vision that has been an inseparable part of the deep culture of the Moluccan peoples. The philosophy of the Saniri Negeri is regarded as more progressive and inclusive when compared to older adat governance systems, which were generally homogenous, exclusive, and based on favouritism towards certain families and relatives, such as rumatau or lumatau, hena, uku, or huku. The founding philosophies of these older institutions were based on the perspectives of the negeri in Ambon and their adat-based governmental structures, which were in turn formed by conventional approaches to governance and social compartmentalisation. As members of the Saniri Negeri are nominated from the most influential people within respective clans or soa, the Saniri Negeri have significant influence in the life and adat of the Moluccan People. The Saniri Negeri have played an important role during the Ambonese conflict starting from 1999. Experience has shown that the philosophy of the Saniri Negeri has raised awareness, and has become a source of inspiration and motivation, for the greater peace process. This was achieved by directly involving and empowering the peoples of Ambon in peace-making, conflict resolution, and building sustainable peace, based on Orang Basudara. The inclusive nature of the Saniri Negeri ensures that all stakeholders within a negeri are heard and involved during decision-making processes, and that all interests and aspirations are heard. The participation of the Ambonese peoples in the Saniri Negeri should be supported, and regional laws should be enacted to ensure that the right to participate is protected and guaranteed.
Keywords; Saniri Negeri, social participation, conflict resolution.
Mark Philip Stadler, MA, MSc
Mark Philip Stadler studied Southeast Asian Studies at undergraduate level at the University of Bonn and as exchange student at the National University of Singapore (NUS) from 2007-2010. He obtained two masters from the University of Leiden, where he studied from 2010-2013: a Research MA in Area Studies with specialization in Southeast Asian/Indonesian Studies and MSc in Public Administration with focus in International Administration and Bureaucracy. In 2013, he commenced his PhD at the University of Copenhagen. (Please kindly read further in the abstract file.)
Urban Religion and Kampung Ideology in Indonesia - Outlook for Progressive Religious Initiatives in the Urban Poor Kampungs of Megapolitan Jakarta
The urban poor of Jakarta live in a religious and politico-ideological void as the Indonesian Muslim mainstream ideology (as part of the wider Nusantara philosophy), mostly represented the Muhammadiyah and the Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), is not able to penetrate the kampungs of the city successfully. NU that is merely rural and stands for traditionalist Islam and Muhammadiyah that is more urban yet rather represents the middle class in the urban centers have to date not found prominent ways to reach the urban majority. As a result, the urban poor population of the kampungs is subjected to a form of religion that is imported by preman groups of radical and fundamental Islamic ideology, especially the Front Pembela Islam (FPI), an Islamist thug group that is present in almost every city of Indonesia today. The Forum Islam Progresif (FIP), a new progressive initiative promoting a cosmopolitan version of Islam, created by associates of the Konfederasi Pergerakan Rakyat Indonesia (KPRI), is trying to counterpoise the ongoing radicalization of the kampungs. By sending young progressive imams and ustads to the kampungs of North Jakarta particularly, the FIP attempts to establish a religiously enlightened and open urban society that is in favor of religious diversity in Indonesia as well as ready to struggle for an Indonesia that is more equitable, equal and
Difa Kusumadewi is an academic assistant in Faculty of Earth Sciences in Bandung Institute of Technology. Currently researching on maritime-related activity and digital economy. She has an experience in conflict and women studies. Held master degree in Development Studies in 2016.
Geographic Identitiy and National Ideology: A Constructivistic Study of the Development Paradigms in Indonesia
Two geographical-oriented development paradigms are prevailing in the discourse of national identitiy and ideology in Indonesia, namely land-oriented and matirime-oriented paradigm. The maritime paradigm, also called the archipelagic ideology, is a set of ideas based on Indonesian geographical condition dan cultural evolutions that surrounded by oceans. In contrast, land paradigm focuses on lands and agricultural activity. The differences within the two paradigms can be seen as ideological discourses that predispose national identity. Throughout the Indonesia’s history, these paradigms have alternatingly become dominant modes of development paradigm. New Order and Reform era have respectively inclined toward land paradigm, due to their exessively emphasis on economic growth. However, recent national discourse introduces by the Joko Widodo’s administration has rejuvenated maritime paradigm. This paper explores two cases of regional developments in Riau Archipelago and Segara Anakan that seem to suffer from conflicting paradigms. Riau Archipelago has prioritized land based industrial sector, leaving manys coastal areas and surrounding ocean’s resources underdeveloped. Segara Anakan has evolved by way traditional social and economic activities that have increasingly inclined toward land, leaving the coastal ecosystem destroyed. Results of the paper suggests that land-oriented and maritime-oriented paradigms be integrated into nation-wide identity and ideology discourses in a more inclusive and elaborative ways. While the role of Joko Widodo’s administration in introducing maritime paradigm is important, we suggest an increased democratic participation of various traditional groups and identity groups in the discourses and their subsequent cations.
Keywords: Maritime paradigm, land paradigm, identity and ideology discourse, democracy.
John P. Talan
John Petrus Talan, Student at Master Programm in Development Studies, Bandung Institute of Technology. He has been finishing his bachelor study at International Relations and he has been working as a researcher in a research institute in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara. Now, His primary research interest centered along adoption and innovation of technology in rural area.
Identities Perplexity in Smart Climate Agriculture Initiatives in East Sumba: A Constructivistic Exploration with Actor-Network Theory
Freedom is a universal value that constitutes the essential ideological element of democracy. While many scholars and academicians acknowledge the above ethical principle, the question as to how to define boundary in a collective life remains vague, and subject to prolonged debates. Central in the question is the theoretical difficulties in describing ‘common world’ and ‘common good’. This paper explores Smart Climate Agriculture initiatives in East Sumba that aim to help East Sumba’s communities to achieve better and sustainable farming practices amid global climate uncertainties, water scarcity, lack of seeds supply and lack of infrastructures. This paper employs Actor-Network Theory to describe how East Sumba’s communities engaged in phases of composing the collective: perplexity, consultation, hierarchization and institution. Attention will be directed towards various actors involved in those phases such as international NGO, local communities and local governments. Results presented in the paper show that in various phases, interactions have been conducted without due processes, resulting in premature calculations of identities, and weakly supported consensus. Thus, while freedom and democracy are rather simple in their normative or ideological formulation, the challenge in practical life is how to articulate those ethical principles in terms of actions and performances in a collective way. While the paper adopts actor-network theory, we also discuss the connection of the results in the paper with the notion of desire, rhizome and assembly as advocated in Deleuzian thoughts.
Key words: Freedom and democracy, collective life, smart climate agriculture, actor-network theory.
My name is Maulida. I was graduated from Graduate School of UGM, on Media and Cultural Studies in 2014. Now I work as English lecturer in LP3I Kediri. I am interested in media and cultural studies research.
From “Japok” (Depok Widow) to “Pelakor” (Husband-Snatcher) Term: Online Cybersexism in Democracy Era
The emergence of social media has been one of the factors change in the norms of language also the way of arguing. Instagram, one of the social media that allows users to interact freely, facilitates forms of communication that often exploits and underestimates women in the form of vocabulary or trolling images (expressions that are shown with the intention of evoking the emotions of social media users). Various kinds of vocabulary and images cannot be separated from a biased or unequal gender understanding in viewing and constructing the image of women. With qualitative descriptive method, this paper tries to analyze the pattern and appearance of gender troll, ie those who are said to be users or internet users, antagonistic, often uploading material on social media that deliberately look racist or sexist. With the theoretical basis of Whitney Philips (2015) and Karla Mantilla (2015) on "Troll and Gender Trolling" this paper looks at how this sexist internet troll phenomenon manifests as a form of gender violence, which can be understood as a continuation of the long history of patriarchal and masculine ideology in a democratic climate
Keywords: Instagram, gender troll, sexism, patriarchy, democracy
Pathurrahman, Noviana Sari, Siti Mauliana
Pathurrahman, Noviana Sari, Siti Mauliana Hairini are the lecture in the faculty of social and political science in Lambung Mangkurat University.
Pathurrahman, S.Sos., M.A.was graduated from Government Department in
Lambung Mangkurat University and Political and Government department in Gadjah Mada University for master degree. and now, Pathurrahman is a lecture in Lambung Mangkurat University.
Noviana Sari, S.IP., M.A. was graduated from International Relation in Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta University and Communication department in Gadjah Mada University for master degree. and now, Noviana Sari is a lecture in Lambung Mangkurat University.
Siti Mauliana Hairini S.IP., M.A. was graduated from International Relation in Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta University and Political and Government department in Gadjah Mada University for master degree. and now, Siti Mauliana is a lecture in Lambung Mangkurat University.
POLITICAL ALIENATION TOWARDS DISABILITY PEOPLE
(Case Study on Local Election in Banjarmasin City At 2015-2020)
Indonesian democracy has been dominated by Schumpeterian perspective which emphasizes method and procedure. Schumpeter be the main reference for the Indonesian democracy studies and also for the political and governmental practice. many studies are analyzed about the procedure of participation, political competition, and development of a more plural party system and re-arrangement of representation institutions. Through a more critical point of view on Schumpeterian mainstream, this research wants to show how the procedure of Indonesian democracy based on Schumpeterian creating “alienation” to some people with disability. The whole of political process on the election are not giving the access and the chances to the disability people. Political procedure is like social norms may be present but the disability feels unable to help them in. this research was found that the disability people perceives their self as: unable to control socio-political events occurring around him, unable to make decisions, and thus unable to predict consequences of his own behavior, feel different from others and the normative system in the society, hence separated from others and the society at large and, as a consequence, estranged from himself. The research method used is qualitative with descriptive analysis. Primary data collection technique through in-depth interview. Key Informants in this study are the Chairman and members of PPDI Banjarmasin, KPU Banjarmasin, Mayor of Banjarmasin, and members of Parliament Banjarmasin. Secondary data collecting through written documents as well as information and news from mass media. The research location is located in Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan.
Keywords: Democracy, Alienation, Disability
Laksmi Adriani Savitri
The author is a lecturer in Anthropology Department, University of Gadjah Mada. Her main research interests are agrarian change, peasant politics and social movement. She attained her doctoral degree from Kassel Universitat, Germany, and has published some of her collective works in Journal of Peasant Studies since 2008.
THE RISE OF RIGHT-WING POPULISM AND PEASANT DEPOLITISATION IN INDONESIA’S COUNTRYSIDE
This paper discusses why the emancipatory peasant politics fell into the demise after the 1965-’66 massacres, and how it implicates into the return of militarism and a rise of right-wing populism at a present time. It argues that the depolitization of peasantry leaves power alignment of militarism and right-wing populism almost unchallenged today, despite of two decades of regime change and democratization. In a light of discussion on global wave of right-wing populism, this paper takes into account Stuart Hall’s (1988) explanation of authoritarian populism as a characterization of certain strategic shift in the political ideological conjuncture. By relating two historical currents: after 65-66 massacres of the leftists and the feel of marginalisation of Islam in the New Order period with the changing political dynamics of Indonesian peasants and rural population today, the paper demonstrates that despite of sharpening inequality and heightening number of agrarian conflicts, emancipatory peasant politics are still unable to forge a progressive change. Absorbed by the wave of ‘conservative turn’ of Islam, anti-Chinese, and anti-communist sentiments, including the military use of imaginary threats, “proxy war” doctrines and paranoid moral panic, the rural and urban poor remain as ‘floating mass’. Islamic populism (Hadiz et al 2014, 2016, 2017) becomes mainly a vehicle for militarism to gain tracts to power, while the suppression of class-based movement has weakened counter-politics and leaves right-wing power alignment unconstrained.
Keywords: right-wing populism, depolitization, peasant politics, militarism
Arum Budiastuti is a lecturer at Universitas Airlangga, who is currently pursuing her PhD in the School of Philosophical and Historical Inquiry, the University of Sydney. Her current research project is 'The Transformation of Halal through Food Regulation, Representation, and Consumption in Contemporary Indonesia'. Her research interest includes religion and culture, environmentalism, Science and Technology Studies, and consumer culture.
The emergence and (re)definition of Halal in Indonesian food law
Halal, an Islamic proscription of a proper way of life, has existed for more than 1400 years. As it relates to food, Halal has been debated widely across different disciplines, but very few discussions focus on how halal has been institutionalised within modern legal systems. This paper focuses on the recent attempts by the Indonesian government in (re)defining and regulating halal as stipulated in the Halal Product Assurance Law (2016). By analysing Indonesian food laws and publication materials from the MUI (the sole provider of Indonesian halal certification in the past 30 years) under the framework of cultural studies, I demonstrate how knowledge politics in the halal food policy making has shaped ‘what/who is important’ in the discussion of halal and ‘what/who should be regulated’ in order to protect the ummah/Islamic society from consuming un-halal food. I argue that ‘halal’ as stipulated in the food law is constructed within a monolithic Islam and Muslim identity, despite diversity within the Islamic community itself.
Khairul Ashdiq Bin Basri
My name is Khairul Ashdiq bin Basri from Bukittinggi, West Sumatera. Now, I am pursuing PhD degree at History Department, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Malaya Kuala Lumpur under LPDP scholarship by Indonesian Ministry of Finance. My research interest is Islam in Minangkabau, Minangkabau's women discourse, Magazine and newspaper in Sumatra Westkust during Dutch colonial time.
Djauharah (1923-1926); First Islamic Women Magazine in Sumatra Westkust
This research looks at the role of Djauharah magazine in Sumatra Westkust in the early twentieth century. The magazine was dedicated for woman as written on magazine front cover Oentoek Bangsa Perempoean (dedicated for women). It is published in Fort de Kock by Sheikh Abdul Lathif Syakur (1882-1963) a Minangkabau Muslim modernist. Most of writers were women those who studied with Sheikh Abdul Lathif Syakur in Tarbijah Hasanah school in Baso a village near Fort de Kock (Bukitinggi city nowadays) among of them were Sa’diah Syakurah, Sheikh Abdul Lathif Syakur’s daughter and her friend Khadijah and Roesmin. This research draws upon mostly primary sources including memoir, interviews, and Djauharah magazine collections itself. This focus determine it role as first magazine which predominantly writers were women who at that time was still scarce among Minangkabau’s people. On the other hand, this study also show how those people with Islamic traditional educational background can make well utilize of Dutch’s “ethical policy” in modern printing technology to spread Islamic teaching among Minangkabau society through magazine and newspaper.
Keywords: Minangkabau women, Djauharah magazine, printing technology, Sheikh Abdul Lathif Syakur, Islamic modernism
Neneng Yanti Khozanatu Lahpan
Neneng Yanti Khozanatu Lahpan is a Senior Lecturer at Department of Cultural Anthropology, Faculty of Arts and Media, ISBI (Institut Seni Budaya Indonesia) Bandung, Indonesia. She completed her doctoral degree in anthropology at Monash University, with the thesis entitled ‘Negotiating Ethnicity and Islam in Musical Performances in West Java, Indonesia’ (2015). Currently, she is conducting research on ‘The Inheritance System of Traditional Arts and the Politics of Identity through Art Education, Festivals, and Competitions in West Java, Indonesia’, funded by Ristekdikti (Directorate of Research, Technology and Higher Education) of Indonesia.
Reconstructing cultural identity through art education in post Reform era of Indonesia
This paper explores how cultural performances in West Java, Indonesia, are maintained through art educational systems including formal, informal, and non- formal schools, paying particular attention to the concern for maintaining and constructing local identity that has emerged in Indonesia’s Reform era. According to the Department of Tourism and Culture, in 2016, there were no less than 5393 performance groups practicing a variety of performance forms in 27 cities and regencies in West Java, and 10 (ten) vocational art schools at senior high school level, spread over 10 different cities. Interestingly, the number of groups and schools increased significantly between 2012-2016. This was evident not only at high school level; it has also emerged at university level, when the sixth president, Susilo Bambang Yudoyono, inaugurated a number of new art universities across the country named Insitut Seni Budaya Indonesia (The Institute of Indonesian Arts and Culture/ISBI) in 2014, in Aceh, Papua, East Kalimantan, South Sulawesi and Bandung. Through observations, interviews, and focus group discussions, this research argues that the increasing awareness of the inheritance of traditional performing arts cannot be separated from political changes in the country, after which locality is considered much more important than previously. Diverse actors including individuals and communities, government, artists and cultural activists are involved in building discourses of locality and constructing new cultural identities.
Keywords: art institutions, education system, cultural identity
Sartika Intaning Pradhani
Sartika Intaning Pradhani is Doctoral Candidate at Doctoral Program, Faculty of Law, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Batch 2017. Her research topics are Pancasila, Unity in Diversity, Local Wisdom, Conflict, Adat Law Community, and Women. Currently, she is doing research on “Complexity of Forest Management Based on Local of Wisdom of Mollo Adat Law Community After Constitutional Court Decision Number 35/PUU-X/2012” funded by Universitas Gadjah Mada; and “Theoretical Discourses on Women’s Role in Natural Resources Conflict” funded by Faculty of Law, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Sartika can be reached by email at email@example.com.
The Use of Adat as Identity Politics during Agrarian Conflict in Indonesia
Agrarian Reformation Consortium notes that since 2015-2017 there are 1.361 manifest conflicts; and in 2017 there are 657 agrarian conflicts in 520.491,87 hectares land involving 652.738 families. According to Coalition for Law Reform based on Society and Ecology, victims during agrarian conflict are communal groups, such as Adat Law Community. Adat Law Community is indigenous people living in Indonesia. Since 2000, Adat Law Community and their traditional rights are legally recognized by the 1945 Republic of Indonesia Constitution. During agrarian conflict, Adat narratives are often brought by communities to claim their right towards natural resources. Ginting says that Marind people uses indigenous people as identity politics to validate their particular legitimate rights to confront the nation state preeminent rights and interest. Narrative of identity politics as indigenous peoples or Adat Law Community builds on the cultural politics of difference rather than on the social politics of equality because international and national law give indigenous people or Adat Law Community special status within the nation-state. This paper is written based on legal normative research to explain how Adat is used as identity politics during agrarian conflict in Indonesia post second amendment of 1945 Constitution in 2000; to analyze how effective Adat is brought as claim by the community to achieve their goal during agrarian conflict; and to identify how state responses towards claim of community towards natural resources based on Adat narrative.
Keywords: Adat, identity politics, agrarian conflict
Deny Arifiana G.R. Lono Lastoro Simatupang SP. Gustami
I as the first author of this article, Deny Arifiana, is a doctoral student of Performing Arts and Art Studies (PSPSR) at the Faculty of Graduate School of UGM Yogyakarta. I am currently conducting a dissertation research on the design of nurse uniforms. Therefore, most of the articles I wrote are part of my dissertation topic. My interest in clothing is based on my educational background in the field of dress code, so I keep trying to focus on this field in order to contribute to the progress of my field. Meanwhile Lono Simatupang and SP. Gustami is my Promoter and Copromotor at UGM.
NURSE UNIFORM DESIGN
Professional Identity Representation
Unlike the uniform design of traditional nursing professions that tend to be similar, the design of today nurse uniforms is much more varied and different in each hospital. Interestingly, the diversity and differences can actually backfire for the nurse profession itself, because in the end the nurse uniform suit becomes not easily identifiable. The purpose of this paper is to identify the causes of ambiguity of the nurse identity in the hospital. The hope, this paper can contribute to research on the design of nurse uniforms and the like. Assessment of nurse uniform design is done through literature study and observation in a number of accredited hospitals in Surabaya. The results of identification indicate that factors that may lead to confusion in the nursing profession's identity in the hospital include: the characteristics of today's nurse uniform design can not reflect the nursing profession; the use of nurse caps in most public hospitals has been replaced with veils, and the use of uniforms with similar design in the hospital.
Keywords: design, uniform, nurse, identity, and profession.
Yayan Hidayat; Muhammad Luthfil Hakim
Democracy and Social Welfare Post-Reformation
Various judgments about the development of democratization of the reform era in Indonesia, tend to see the stagnation and even decline of democracy in creating the common prosperity. This study seeks to identify during the period 2004-2018 the main cause of the stagnation of democracy and measure the quality of democratic institutions in effectively managing the welfare. Resource management becomes a strategic issue of democracy because it not only concerns the fulfillment of just and equitable welfare, but also the availability of access for the public in controlling and managing resources. Analitycal hierarchy process method is used as a tool to identify and measure the quality of democratic institutions in managing the welfare. The results of this study indicate the failure of democratic institutions in creating prosperity because democracy increasingly berkelindan with corruption, patronage, colored by a powerful political cartel, even dominated by the oligarchs.
Keywords: Democracy; Institutions; Welfare.